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The History of Ga People: Introduction - References



[1] Homowo means ‘hooting at hunger’. The festival usually falls in July-August.

[2] Each Ga town has a number of farming and fishing villages. The inhabitants of these villages usually come to stay with their kinsmen in the towns during the annual Homowo festival.

[3] C.C. Reindorf: ‘History of the Gold Coast and Ashanti’ (Basel 1895), 7.

[4] M.E. Kropp: Linguistic Pre-History and Historical Reconstruction; The Ga-Adangbe migration’ (unpublished).

[5] C.C. Reindorf: op. cit.,pp.3-4, 32

W.E.F. Ward: ‘A history of Ghana’ (London 1966) pg. 57

M.J. Field: ‘Social Organization of the Ga people’ (London 1940) pg. 121

[6] C.C. Reindorf: op.cit, pg.4

[7] Ibid. Pg. 5

[8] N.A. Azu: Gold Coast Review, Vol. III No. 2 (July-December, 1926)

[9] A.B. Quartey-Papafio: ‘The Native Tribunals of the Akras of the Gold Coast’, Journal of the African Society, Vol. X 1910-11 PG. 320-321

[10] J.M. Bruce Myers: ‘The Origin of the Gas’ Journal of the African Society, Vol. XXVII 1927-28 E.A. Ammah: History of the Ga (unpublished)

[11] Interview with Nai Wulomo

[12] Interview with Nii Kwakwarenya II, Mantse of Labadi – the Teshi people

[13] Interview with the elders of Osu

[14] Interview with Nii Adzei Oniku II, Mantse of Tema, Nii Adzete Obedeka, Mankrolo of Tema and their elders

[15] Interview with the elders of Kpone

[16] Interview with t Mankralo and elders of Ningo. Also with Omotsotse Tafa, an expert on Klama songs.

[17] Interview with the chief fetish priest and elders of Kasunya

[18] he elders of Okpebim devision of Yilo Krobo; Interview with Nene Azu Matekole II, Konor of Manya Krobo

[19] Interview with Nene Azu Matekole II, Konor of Manya Krobo

[20] C.C. Reindorf: op. cit. pg. 5-6

[21] Ibib. – pg.3

[22] J.D. Fage: Some remarks on beads and trade in Lower Guinea in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, J.A.H. V.ol.2 (1962) pg. 343-347

[23] J.M. Bruce Myers, op. cit. pg. 72

[24] E.A. Ammah, ‘Origins of the Ga’ (unpublished)

[25] P. Ozanne: Ladoku; an early town near Prmpram. Ghana Notes and Queries, No.7 (June 1965) Pg6

[26] C.C. Reindorf: op. cit. Pg.6-7

[27] Interview with Nai Wulomo, confirmed by Gbese Mantse, Mankralo and elders of Nungua

[28] Series of Kple songs given by the Olilo priestess

[29] C.C. Reindorf, op. cit, Pg.12

[30] P. Ozanne, the Early History Archaeolgy of Accra, T.H.S.G. Vol. 1962 pg. 69

[31] Pieter De Marees: Beschryvinge ende historische verhael vant Gout Koninckrijk van Gunea (1602) Translated by Purchas in , Purchas His Pilgrime, Vol. VI (Glosgow) pg. 304

[32] Interview with Nene Nagai Kasa and his elders of Agomeda in Shai

[33] N.A. Azu, op. cit. Pg. 267

[34] Interview with the Nene Nagai Kasa and his elders. Confirmed by Mr. Nyemitei of Dodowa

[35] P. Ozanne: Ladoku: an early town near Prmpram. G.N.Q. No. 7 Jan. 1965 Pg7 Enoch Azu: Adangbe Historical and Proverbial songs (Accra 1929) Pg.74

[36] Enoch Azu: : Adangbe Historical and Proverbial songs (Accra 1929) Pg.74

[37] Oral tradition and kpa song given by Ankpa, an old woman of Labadi

[38] Kpa song given by Nii Anyetei Kwakwaranya II, Mantse of Labadi

[39] De Marees, in Purchas op. cit. Pg. 304

[40] Anonymous Dutch map dated 25 September, 1629

[41] Otofo is a puberty rite performed for girls before they are considered fit for marriage and motherhood. It involves a period of confinement during which the girls are taught the duties expected of them as wives and mothers. After the confinement the girls are dressed in expensive cloth and beads and they dance through the town thanking those who have help in making the ceremony successful

[42] Interviews with elders of Osu. There is controversy over the identity of the donor of the land. Some say that Odai Atsem of Labadi gave the land. Others disagree.

[43] Interview with Nii Anyeti Kwakwaranya II, Mantse of Labadi, Augustus Amate Gbugblah – The Teshi people (Accra, 1952)

[44] Interniew with Mankralo and elders of Nungua

[45] Interview with Nii Anyeti Kwakwaranya and elders of Labadi

[46] C.C. Reindorf, op. cit. Pg 7

[47] M.J. Field: Religion and Medicine of the Ga people, (London, 1937) Pg.5

[48] Ibid.

[49] Nketsia: Historical evidence in Ga Music, the Historian in Tropical Africa (Ed. Varsina, Mauny and Thomas, 1964) Pg. 278

[50] C.C. Rendorf: op.cit. pg. 115

[51] Duarte Pacheco Pereira: Esmeraldo de Situ Orbis, translated by G.H. Kimble, 1956.pg. 122

[52] Astley: A New General Collection of Voyages and Travels, Vol. I (London 1745)Pg.174

Richard Hakluyt: The Principal Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation, Vol.XI (Edinburgh 1889)Pgs. 155-158

[53] J.W. Blake: European beginnings in West Africa, 1454-1578, (London 1937) pg. 101-102

[54] Pieter De Mrees in Purchas, op, cit.pg. 304

[55] Furley Collection – N8, 1658-59. Resolutions of the State General, 20th September 1659.

[56] C.C. Reindorf: op. cit. pg. 4-5

[57] Ibib. Pg. 5

[58] Kple song given by Olli pristess

[59] Brun, Samuel Brun, des wundartzet und Burgers zu Schiffarten (Basle, 1624) edited by S.P. 1’Honore Naber.

[60] Furley collections N2, 1624-1638. J.J. Sticker, Fort Nassau, to the Assembly of XIX, 3RD Feb. 1634

[61] See pg.

[62] See pg.

[63] Romer, op cit, pg. 118

[64] Fishing, salt-making, trading and farming continued to be important occupations in the Accra plains throughout the period under consideration. Several writers such as Tilleman, Rask, Atkins and Smith writing at the close of the seventeenth century and beginning of the eighteenth century remarked on the importance of the salt and fish produced in Accra which were carried inland for sale. Smith went so far as to say that ‘the salt ponds in Accra yielded vast quantities of salt sufficient to supply not only the whole coast but also all the ships that trade there.’

W. Smith: A New Voyage to Guinea (London 1744) pg.135

Eric Tilleman: En liden enfolding beretning om det landscab Guinea (Copenhagen 1697) pg. 110-145

J. Rask: En sand ferdig ReiseBeskrivelse til og fra Guinea (Tronhjem 1754) pg. 126

J. Atkins: A Voyage to Guinea, Brazil and the West Indies (London 1735) pg. 107

[65] De Marees in Purchas, op.cit. pg.304

[66] C.C. Reindorfop.cit. pg.12-13

[67] Furley Collection N3, 1639-1645, J. Roychaver to Count Maurits and Council Brazil, 1st Feb. 1643. The murder was said to have been committed by a ‘great master’

[68] Interview with Nii Amugi II, Ga Mantse (occupant of the paramount stool) and M. E.A. Ammah

[69] Furley collection N4, 1646-47, Van der Wel to the Assembly of XIX, 2nd April 1646

[70] Ibid. Fiscal Hendrick Caarloff to the Assembly of XIX, 21st May, 1646

[71] Interview with Mr. E.A. Ammah

[72] Eric Tilleman, En liden enfolding beretning om det landskab Guinea, (Copenhagen 1697) pg. 93

[73] Furlay collection N3, 1639-45: Agreement made in the name and on behalf of the Hon. Company by order of the Director-General Ruychaver with the King of Greater Accra, 30thAugust 1642

[74] V.G.K. No. 77, Breve og dokumanter indkomme og Udgaede 1624, 1659, 11680, Christian Cornelissen to Okai Kwei 16th October, 1680. When Cornelisen was serving on the Danish fort in the kingdom of Accra between 1661-67, the two viadors were called Kieku and Agroma.

[75]De Marees. Op, cit. pg.311

[76] V.G.K. No.77, Breve og dokumanter indkomme og Udgaede 1624, 1659, 11680, Christian Cornelissen

(Copenhagen) 16th Oct. 1680.

[77] O. Dapper: Naukeurige beschrijvinge der afrikaensche, (Amsterdam 1668) Adaptation in English by J. Ogliby: A New and Accurate Descriptiion of Africa. (London 1670) pg. 435

[78] .G.K. No.77, Breve og dokumanter indkomme og Udgaede 1624, 1659, 11680. Presents to the kings and their Ministers on the Gold Coast in Guinea, April 1680.

[79] Dapper, op. cit. pg. 434

[80] Romer, op. cit, pg. 119

[81] Dapper, op. cit. pg. 434

Copyright (c) 2010. All Rights Reserved *Professor Irene K. Odotei




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